The impact of organic fertiliser vermicompost on winter wheat productivity and soil characteristcs

 Specific field and laboratory testing carried out during the period of 2010-2011

REPORT (summarized)

 Research supervisor:    dr. Regina Repšienė

                                        LRCAF Vėžaičiai Branch Office

                                        The department of acid soil and crop research

                                        Chief researcher

                                        Vėžaičiai, Gargždų 29, Klaipėda district, tel.: 846458233,

                                        e-mail: regina@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

 

Research                         dr. Regina Skuodienė

administrators              LRCAF Vėžaičiai Branch Office

                                        The department of acid soil and crop research

                                        Chief researcher 

                                        Vėžaičiai, Gargždų 29, Klaipėda district, tel.: 846458233,

                                        e-mail: rskuod@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

                                         dr. Regina Repšienė

                                         dr. Danutė Karčauskienė

                                        LRCAF Vėžaičiai Branch Office, director

                                        The department of acid soil and crop research

                                        Chief researcher

                                        Vėžaičiai, Gargždų 29, Klaipėda district, tel.: 846458233,

                                        e-mail: danuteo@vezaiciai.lzi.lt

 INTRODUCTION

  Biohumus positively effects processes of seed germination and promotes more intensive growth of plants. This fertiliser protects a germinating crop from illnesses, while bioactive substances stimulate development of the root system and matter intake, so the plant grows stronger, more resistant to diseases and pests. Also, the plants become more patient of unfavourable meteorological conditions and more resistant to low temperatures and droughts. Biohumus improves soil structure and moisture regime without degrading humus layer, unlike in cases when mineral fertilisers are used. All this contributes to extra yield and higher quality of the crops.

 Schemes of the research

 Research of the effects of biohumus on the productivity of winter wheat and soil

 The research has been carried out using the method of the specific field testing (microfields (1´1 m)), repeated six times:

  1. Control option – unfertilised with biohumus
  2. Fertilised with biohumus 0.25 t ha-1;
  3. Fertilised with biohumus 0.5 t ha-1 + sprayed with fluid biohumus, 1 time BBCH 22-23;
  4. Fertilised with biohumus 1.0 t ha-1;
  5. Fertilised with biohumus 1.5 t ha-1;
  6. Fertilised with mineral fertilisers N30 – 90 kg ha-1P60 – 360 kg ha-1; K90 – 58 kg ha-1 + sprayed with urea solution 15 kg ha-1 .

 The field of the research was shallowly ploughed and germinated. It was fertilised with biohumus (0.25 – 1.5 t ha-1) options 2 – 5 and mineral fertilisers (N30P60K90) – option 6. Following the scheme of the research, biohumus was locally inserted in the drilling lines together with seeds, and mineral fertilisers were spread and inserted shallowly (0-8 cm depth). Quantity of the biohumus (45 % moisture), inserted in the drilling lines, has been expressed as weight t ha-1 and volume l ha-1 (see Table 4b). Viable seeds of the undressed (with chemical pesticide) winter wheat “Sirvinta” were used for the research (4-5 mln. seeds per ha-1).

 Table 4b. Quantity of biohumus, 45 % moisture, (expressed as weight and volume) 

Weight of biohumus

Volume of biohumus

0.25 t ha-1

0.36 m3

0.5 t ha-1

0.71 m3

1.0 t ha-1

1.42 m3

1.5 t ha-1

2.13 m3

 RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH

 3.1. Effect of biohumus on the productivity of winter wheat

 Biological analysis of the winter wheat was carried out in autumn, spring and before harvesting. 70.8 to 73.9 % of the winter wheat overwintered the unfavourable winter. On average, the biggest part (257.0 per m-2) of the productive wheat stems as well as the highest grain yield were grown in the fields, fertilised with biohumus 0.5 t ha-1. In comparison with the control field (unfertilised with biohumus), the yield was twice as high, and in comparison with the field, fertilised with mineral fertilisers N30P60K90, the yield was higher by 10%.

 3.3. Effect of biohumus on the quality of grains

 The results of the dry biohumus research showed that moisture of the grains was from 12.7 to 13.5 %.

Level of proteins in the wheat grains varied from 12.6 to 13.5 %, which corresponded to Class II of wheat grains purchased.

 Level of starch in the wheat grains varied from 67.1 to 67.9 %. If grains accumulate more proteins, they usually accumulate less starch.

The level of sedimentation varied from 8.3 to 43.9 ml cm-3, which shows good baking characteristics of the wheat flour.

Depending on meteorological conditions and nutrition, the level of gluten varied from 21.3 to 23.7 %. According to the quality requirements for food grains, only the gains fertilised with biohumus 0.5 t ha-1 corresponded to Class II.

Fall number is one of the quality indicators, negatively influenced by rainy weather. The grains were harvested during the period of rainy weather, and only the grains fertilised with biohumus 0.5 t ha-1 and 1.0 t ha-1 met the requirements for fall number. When fall number of grains is lower than 200 seconds, it is impossible to bake good bread.

                            Effect of biohumus on the quality of winter wheat grains, 2011 

Options

Moisture

Proteins

Starch

Sedimentation

Gluten

Fall number

%

%

%

ml cm-3

%

s

Research of dry biohumus

1 option - control

13.5

12.9

67.2

40.6

22.6

193

13.4

13.1

67.7

39.2

23.2

 

3 option – 0.5 t ha-1

12.7

13.5

67.2

43.7

23.7

215

12.7

13.3

67.9

42.1

23.4

 

4 option – 1.0 t ha-1

12.9

12.9

67.7

39.5

22.3

263

12.9

13,1

67.5

40.5

22.5

 

6 option - mineral fertilisers

13.1

13.5

67.1

43.9

23.3

189

13.2

13.2

67.3

41.4

22.7

 

 PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS

 

Under the climatic conditions of western Lithuania, changes of the chemical properties in moraine loam Dystric Albeluvisol and productivity of the winter wheat depended on the use of biohumus:

  1. Different rates of dry biohumus did not have any impact on biometric indicators of the wheat (number of the germinated plants, plant height, length of the stem and the wheatear). The number of the productive stems mostly increased using the rate of biohumus 0.5 t ha-1. Fertilization rate, most favourable for the number of grains in the wheatear, was 1.5 t ha-1. The highest weight of one thousand grains was observed after fertilization with biohumus 1.0 t ha-1, and highest yields were received after the wheat had been fertilized with biohumus 0.5 t ha-1.
  2. Fertilization with dry biohumus had a positive effect on the level of proteins, sedimentation and gluten in the grains of the winter wheat. According to the quality requirements for food grains, they corresponded to Classes II and III of wheat grains purchased.
  3. The rate of dry vermicompost (1.5 t ha-1) added locally, marginally increased the levels of mobile potassium K2O, total N, total C, exchange Ca and exchange Mg, but had no influence on other researched agrochemical indicators – mobile P2O5, mobile Fe, mobile Cu and mobile Zn.